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In this imperial chronology, each year is listed according to the Chinese lunar calendar with traditional notations for each year (e.g., jiashen) followed by the internationally recognized Gregorian calendar year (e.g., 1644) that approximately corresponds to the given lunar year. Information on the imperial reign is listed with each calendar year. Specific events are listed after a title denoting the lunar month (e.g., 1st Month) in which they occurred.
Ages of historical figures are given as traditionally calculated by the Chinese lunar calendar. This traditional way of counting a person's age uses the word sui (year of age). The word conveys how many lunar years—even if only for a few days or months—an individual has experienced in life.
Chinese names are shown in the conventional Chinese order with the surname (family name) followed by the given name. When possible, Manchu names are rendered according to the Möllendorff system of transliteration (Romanization). If the original Manchu name is unknown, the name is shown with a hyphenated version of the transliterated Chinese name. Some Jurchen and Manchu figures are more commonly known by their Chinese names; in those cases, the Chinese name is used. Official titles and imperial institutions are rendered according to Charles O. Hucker's A Dictionary of Official Titles in Imperial China (Stanford, 1985) when possible.
The Reign of the Chongzhen Emperor (approx. 1628–1644)
Wuchen Year (approx. 1628)
Chongzhen Reign, 1st Year
The emperor initiates the rule of daily administrating court affairs with subordinate officials in the Hall of Literary Brilliance (Wenhua dian).
Hong Taiji attacks Ligdan Khan and pacifies southern territories of Mongolia.
Jisi Year (approx. 1629)
Chongzhen Reign, 2nd Year
The first imperial son, Zhu Cilang, is born and designated as heir apparent in the following year.
The Latter Jin regime holds the first high-level civil service examinations in its dominion.
Gengwu Year (approx. 1630)
Chongzhen Reign, 3rd Year
Hong Taiji imprisons his cousin Amin (the second son of Nurhaci’s younger brother Šurhaci) for failing to guard the four occupied cities south of the Great Wall.
Xinwei Year (approx. 1631)
Chongzhen Reign, 4th Year
Hong Taiji enacts an ordinance (called Lizhu tiaoli, lit. “Regulations for Leaving Masters”) that allows slaves to indict their masters and become freemen through relevant legal process.
Manggūltai (the fifth son of Nurhaci), one of the Four Great Princes (Sida beile), is demoted.
Renshen Year (approx. 1632)
Chongzhen Reign, 5th Year
Hong Taiji sits alone to the south, thus abolishing the practice of having the khan seated with the three senior princes (beile).
Reforms of the Manchu script are codified and are attributed to the scholar Dahai.
The third imperial son Zhu Cican is born and later designated as the Prince of Ding.
Guiyou Year (approx. 1633)
Chongzhen Reign, 6th Year
The fourth imperial son Zhu Cihuan is born and later designated as the Prince of Yong.
Hong Taiji consolidates khanate powers and abolishes the absolute powers of Eight Banners commanders.
Yihai Year (approx. 1635)
Chongzhen Reign, 8th Year
Hong Taiji penalizes Daišan for various infractions.
Bingzi Year (approx. 1636)
Chongzhen Reign, 9th Year
Hong Taiji inaugurates the Three Palace Academies.
Three Khalkha Mongol clans submit to Latter Jin rule.
Hong Taiji designates his dynasty with a new title, the Qing.
Hong Taiji establishes the Censorate.
Hong Taiji leads the second invasion of Joseon Korea.
Wuyin Year (approx. 1638)
Chongzhen Reign, 11th Year
The Court of Colonial Affairs supersedes the Mongol Agency for the management of relations with Mongolian and other non-Han ethnic groups.
Xinsi Year (approx. 1641)
Chongzhen Reign, 14th Year
The forces of the Qing and the Ming fight in the Battle of Songjin over the cities of Songshan and Jinzhou.
Jiashen Year (approx. 1644)
Chongzhen Reign, 17th year
On the first day of the month, Li Zicheng declares himself king over his insurgent Great Shun regime in Xi’an.
The peasant revolt led by Li Zicheng storms the capital (Beijing). On the eighteenth day, the Chongzhen Emperor hangs himself on the hill (Wansui shan, lit. “Mount of Myriad Longevity”, also known as Prospect Hill) overlooking the Forbidden City.
Manchu troops enter the dominion of the Ming through the Shanhai Pass. The Ming dynasty collapses.
Funerary rites for the late emperor and empress are conducted at the Si Tomb (Siling, with ling meaning tomb) in Changping.
Translated and edited by Li Yang, Zhuang Ying, Adam J. Ensign, et al.
The Chongzhen Emperor (r. 1628-1644)
Lady Zhou, Empress Xiaojie of the Chongzhen Emperor (r. 1628-1644)
Introduction: Lady Zhou, primary consort of the Chongzhen Emperor (r. 1628-1644), was careful, gentle, and kind. She was consort to the emperor during days of social turmoil.
Lady Zhou (? -1644) was Princess of Xin before she was given the title of Empress when her husband Zhu Youjian ascended the throne as the Chongzhen Emperor (r. 1628-1644)
It was a time of chaotic peasant rebellions. Once she hinted to the emperor: “I still have a home in Nanjing.” But the emperor did not understand her implied suggestion to move the capital from Beijing to Nanjing.
Lady Tian, the Honored Consort, was spoiled and pushy. As the chief of palace ladies, Zhou found a way to show her. On a New Year’s Day, when lady Tian went to greet her, she made her wait outside in the cold for a long time. When the impatient Tian extended her new year’s greeting to her, she was aloof and unreceptive. Contradictorily, Lady Zhou warmly received another consort and chatted with her for a long time. Lady Tian was so angry that she went to complain in tears to the emperor. Still holding a grudge against Lady Zhou over an argument in the Hall of Union (Jiaotai dian), the emperor went to the empress’ palace and shoved her to the ground.
Lady Zhou resorted to starvation to show her resentment, which made the emperor a bit regretful. Soon he sent a eunuch to see her and bestow a fur on her. Later, Lady Tian was punished for misbehavior and was expelled to live in the Palace of Auspicious Beginning (Qixiang gong, in the Qing dynasty it was changed into the Hall of the Supreme Principle, Taiji dian). For three solid months the emperor did not summon her. One day when the Chongzhen Emperor and Lady Zhou were viewing flowers together, Zhou suggested summoning lady Tian. When the Chongzhen Emperor did not respond her, she took that as permission and had Lady Tian called to the garden. They got on good terms again.
The social turmoil drove the Chongzhen Emperor to worry day and night. Seeing the Emperor’s health decline day by day, Lady Zhou sent him food she had prepared. Meanwhile, the emperor received a letter from his grandmother, who told him that in her dream his deceased mother urged him to take care of himself. Recalling Lady Zhou’s care to him, the Emperor was touched. He showed her his grandmother’s letter and burst into tears with her over the meal.
In the third month of 1644, peasant troops captured the capital Beijing. At the order of the Chongzhen Emperor, Lady Zhou hanged herself in the palace. She was given the posthumous title of Xiaojie by the exiled Ming government in south China.