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Timeline of the Ming & Qing Palace Events

Introductory Matters
In this imperial chronology, each year is listed according to the Chinese lunar calendar with traditional notations for each year (e.g., jiashen) followed by the internationally recognized Gregorian calendar year (e.g., 1644) that approximately corresponds to the given lunar year. Information on the imperial reign is listed with each calendar year. Specific events are listed after a title denoting the lunar month (e.g., 1st Month) in which they occurred.
  Ages of historical figures are given as traditionally calculated by the Chinese lunar calendar. This traditional way of counting a person's age uses the word sui (year of age). The word conveys how many lunar years—even if only for a few days or months—an individual has experienced in life.
  Chinese names are shown in the conventional Chinese order with the surname (family name) followed by the given name. When possible, Manchu names are rendered according to the Möllendorff system of transliteration (Romanization). If the original Manchu name is unknown, the name is shown with a hyphenated version of the transliterated Chinese name. Some Jurchen and Manchu figures are more commonly known by their Chinese names; in those cases, the Chinese name is used. Official titles and imperial institutions are rendered according to Charles O. Hucker's A Dictionary of Official Titles in Imperial China (Stanford, 1985) when possible.
 
The Reign of the Kangxi Emperor (approx. 1662-1722)

Xinchou Year (approx. 1661)
Shunzhi Reign, 18th Year
 
4th Month: 
First rank light chariot commandants (Manchu adaha hafan) are buried with the Shunzhi Emperor. Burial sacrifices are held.
Zheng Chenggong recaptures the island of Taiwan.
The memorial of accounts (zouxiao) incident erupts in Suzhou, Songjiang, Changzhou, and Zhenjiang in the Jiangnan region.
 
6th Month:
The Grand Secretariat is dissolved, and the Three Palace Academies are reinstituted.
 
11th Month:
The Kangxi Emperor personally conducts sacrifices at the Round Mound Altar. The Shunzhi Emperor’s memorial tablet is formally placed in the Imperial Ancestral Temple.
 
12th Month:
Wu Sangui, the Prince Pacifier of the West leads the troops into Burma (present-day Myanmar). The Burmese deliver Zhu Youlang (the Ming Yongli Emperor) into the custody of Wu Sangui.
The Court of the Imperial Clan (Zongren fu) presents the updated edition of The Jade Genealogy (Yu die, the imperial genealogy). 
This year, in order to protect against people in inland China collaborating with Zheng Chenggong in his resistance against the Qing, maritime trade is restricted (known as haijin, lit. “sea prohibition”). Imperial authorities force the residents of the coastal areas of the Jiangnan region, Zhejiang, Fujian, and Guangdong provinces to move thirty to fifty li (one li was approximately 644 meters in the Qing dynasty) inland. 
Sailing vessels are burned, and not a single wooden plank is permitted to leave port. This is called the “Order for Relocation from Coastal Areas” (qianhai ling).
 
Renyin Year (approx. 1662)
Kangxi Reign, 1st Year
 
2nd Month:
Dutch Governor Frederick Coyett surrenders to Zheng Chenggong in Taiwan.
 
3rd Month:
Upon the pacification of Yunnan, sacrifices at imperial mausoleums are conducted, and a general pardon is declared throughout the empire.
The Shunzhi Emperor’s mausoleum is honorably entitled the Xiao Tomb (lit. “Filial Tomb”).
 
4th Month:
Nurhaci and Hong Taiji are given additional posthumous titles.
Wu Sangui executes the Yongli Emperor—an insurgent remnant of the Ming dynasty—and his son at Kunming.
Zheng Chenggong dies.
 
5th Month:
On the summer solstice, the Kangxi Emperor makes sacrifices to the earth at the Square Moated Terrace (Fangze) in the Temple of Earth complex.
 
8th Month:
As per imperial authority, the Court of the Imperial Clan (Zongren fu) and the Ministry of Rites (Li bu) review the wishes of various princes who are willing to serve as adopted fathers (as opposed to the birth father) of certain daughters of the nobility. Permission is received, and the daughters are to follow in the promotions and demotions of their adoptive parents.
 
10th Month:
The empress dowager is promoted as the grand empress dowager. The empress (huanghou) is promoted as Empress Dowager Renxian. The biological mother of the emperor is promoted as Empress Dowager Cihe.
 
11th Month:
Wu Zhirong uncovers the unofficial History of the Ming (Ming shi) by Zhuang Tinglong and reports the work to Manchu authorities.
 
Guimao Year (approx. 1663)
Kangxi Reign, 2nd Year
 
2nd Month:
Empress Dowager Cihe, née Tunggiya, dies.
 
3rd Month:
The case regarding Ming dynasty history involving the late author Zhuang Tinglong and his historical accounts is investigated and officially handled by Qing authorities. (Historians know this incident as the Zhuang Tinglong Case or the Case of Ming Dynasty History.)
 
5th Month:
By imperial edict, the empire’s money and grain are to be managed by the Ministry of Revenue. Ministries and courts are required to apply to the Ministry of Revenue for allotments. This edict is added to the law.
The late Empress Dowager Cihe, née Tunggiya, is given her honorary posthumous titles.
The late Shunzhi Emperor’s coffin is relocated to the Xiao Tomb and laid to rest in the underground burial chamber.
 
6th Month:
Burial rites are held for the late Shunzhi Emperor at the Xiao Tomb. Empress Xiaokang and Empress Duanjing are interred with the emperor.
 
11th Month:
The reconstructions at the Fu and Zhao Tombs are completed. The remains of Nurhaci and Hong Taiji are interred.
 
Jiachen Year (approx. 1664)
Kangxi Reign, 3rd Year
 
4th Month:
Oboi reports in a memorial to the throne that Fiyanggū's son, Imperial Guardsman Wohe, insubordinately rode an imperial horse. He also accuses Fiyanggū of holding a grudge against him, and has Fiyanggū executed in public. Fiyanggū’s personal property is confiscated.
The throne orders the Weaving and Dyeing Office (Zhiran ju) of the Ministry of Works (Gong bu) to be placed under the aegis of the Imperial Household Department (Neiwu fu).
 
Jisi Year (approx. 1665)
Kangxi Reign, 4th Year
 
2nd Month:
Censor Dong Wenji reports that grand ministers are revising the order established by the previous emperor. He deems this inappropriate and suggests that all be restored to the previously established order.
 
3rd Month:
The Temple of the Emperors of Successive Dynasties is repaired.
The alleged crimes of Johann Adam Schall von Bell (Chinese name, Tang Ruowang)—a Jesuit who served in the Directorate of Astronomy (Qintian jian)—are discussed by the grand ministers.
 
7th Month:
By order of the grand empress dowager, Regent Sonin’s granddaughter—the daughter of Grand Minister Assistant Commander of the Imperial Guardsmen Gabula of the Hešeri clan—Lady Hešeri, is to become empress. Betrothal gifts are sent to the Hešeri family in traditional fashion (called nacai li).
 
9th Month:
Regent Sonin’s granddaughter, Lady Hešeri, is appointed as empress.
 
10th Month:
The Kangxi Emperor conducts his first archery and hunting expedition in the South Gardens (Nan yuan).
 
Bingwu Year (approx. 1666)
Kangxi Reign, 5th Year
 
1st Month:
Regents Oboi and Suksaha have a serious land dispute. From this time forward, Oboi monopolizes the power of the regency.
 
3rd Month:
Regent Sonin requests the Kangxi Emperor to personally assume power. The emperor receives his written memorial request but does not send a response.
 
11th Month:
Taking advantage of the revision of the measure of “enclosing” (quandi), Oboi frames, arrests, and imprisons Minister of Revenue Grand Secretary Su-na-hai, Zhili Governor-general Zhu Changzuo, Governor Wang Denglian, and others.
With Regent Sonin aging, Regent Ebilun weak, and Regent Suksaha’s lower prestige, none are able to oppose Oboi. 
 
12th Month:
Oboi issues a false imperial order to have Su-na-hai, Zhu Changzuo, and Wang Denglian executed.
 
Dingwei Year (approx. 1667)
Kangxi Reign, 6th Year
 
1st Month:
Fuciowan, the Shunzhi Emperor’s second son and half-brother to the Kangxi Emperor, is named as the Prince of Yu.
 
4th Month:
Regent Sonin is bestowed the additional title of a first rank duke.
 
6th Month:
Reader-in-waiting Xiong Cilü at the Office for the Advancement of Literature (Hongwen yuan) presents a memorial to the throne in which he describes the fierce conflicts between the Manchu and Han in the current reign and that the proper order is no longer binding.
 
7th Month:
The Kangxi Emperor personally assumes power and receives congratulations in the Hall of Supreme Harmony. Imperial mercies are extended, and a pardon is declared throughout the empire. Court is first held in the Palace of Heavenly Purity (Qianqing gong). The emperor orders all military officials to appear in audience before him.
Oboi has Suksaha and his son executed.
Regents Ebilun and Oboi are bestowed the additional title of first rank duke.
 
9th Month:
Orders are made for the composition of The Veritable Records of the Shunzhi Emperor (Shizu shilu).
Giyešu, the Prince of Kang, officially comments upon the crimes of Suksaha.
 
11th Month:
On the winter solstice, the emperor sacrifices to Heaven at the Round Mound Altar. Joint offerings are also made for the late Shunzhi Emperor. 
 
Wushen Year (approx. 1668)
Kangxi Reign, 7th Year
 
1st Month:
The Stele of Divine Merit and Sacred Virtues (Shengong shengde bei) is erected at the Xiao Tomb.
Oboi and Ebilun are bestowed with the additional title of grand preceptor.
 
9th Month:
The Kangxi Emperor prepares for a tour of the empire’s borderlands. Reader-in-waiting Xiong Cilü and Supervising Secretary Zhao Zhifu send a memorial of expostulation to the throne. The emperor ends his travel plans and orders a clear explanation of events.
 
12th Month:
Belgium Jesuit Ferdinand Verbiest (Chinese name, Nan Huairen)—who served to properly align the Chinese calendar—reports the crimes of the Directorate of Astronomy official Wu Mingxuan to the throne.
 
Jiyou Year (approx. 1669)
Kangxi Reign, 8th Year
 
1st Month:
While the Palace of Heavenly Purity (Qianqing gong) is being repaired, the Kangxi Emperor temporarily holds court in the Hall of Martial Valor (Wuying dian). This move is done in accordance with the grand empress dowager’s order, namely, “The emperor currently resides in the Palace of Pure Tranquility (Qingning gong), that is, the Hall of Preserving Harmony (Baohe dian). In utilizing a hall as a palace, the heart is not at peace. The Palace of Heavenly Purity and the Hall of Union (Jiaotai dian) may be renovated, and the emperor may relocate.”
 
3rd Month:
The early-Qing “Calendar Controversy” comes to an end. Ferdinand Verbiest (Chinese name, Nan Huairen) is named as the assistant director of the Directorate of Astronomy.
 
4th Month:
The Kangxi Emperor personally visits the Directorate of Education, makes offerings to Confucius, and lectures on The Book of Changes (Zhouyi) and The Book of Documents (Shangshu). Supervising Secretary Liu Ruhan requests the emperor to hold the Classics Colloquium (Jing yan). The emperor approves his request.
 
5th Month:
Imperial orders are issued for Oboi’s arrest and interrogation before the throne. That day, upon Oboi’s arrival at court, imperial guards arrest him.
From this time forward, the Expert Wrestler Camp (Shanpu ying, a division of the imperial guard) is established and directed by the emperor’s trusted subjects.
A council of princes and high ministers discuss the thirty high-crimes of Oboi and decide that he and his family should all be executed. The Kangxi Emperor declares that based on his numerous merits in battle Oboi will be spared from death and kept in official custody. Meanwhile, Bambursan and Oboi’s other coconspirators are executed.
Ebilun is stripped of his additional title of grand preceptor.
The practice of “enclosing” (quandi) is permanently discontinued. Those lands claimed during this year’s enclosing program are returned.
 
6th Month:
By imperial edict, if imperial clansmen (zongren) are charged with crimes, their status as imperial clansmen will not be in jeopardy. All whose imperial-clan membership was stripped since the eighteenth year of the Shunzhi reign will receive a personal detailed investigation by the Court of the Imperial Clan (Zongren fu).
 
7th Month:
By imperial edict, the official titles of Su-na-hai, Zhu Changzuo, and Wang Denglian—all of whom were framed by Oboi—are restored. The late officials are also granted posthumous titles.
 
10th Month:
Reconstruction of the Lugou Bridge (also known as the Marco Polo Bridge) is completed. The emperor prepares an inscription for a commemorative stele to be erected on the west end of the bridge.
 
11th Month:
The Hall of Supreme Harmony (Taihe dian) and the Palace of Heavenly Purity (Qianqing gong) are completed. The emperor receives congratulatory audiences at the Hall of Supreme Harmony. He takes up residence in the Palace of Heavenly Purity.

Gengxu Year (approx. 1670)
Kangxi Reign, 9th Year

1st Month:
The Kangxi Emperor prays to the Emperor of Heaven (Shangdi, lit. “Emperor Above”) for the harvest at the Temple of Heaven. Accompanying offerings are made to Nurhaci, Hong Taiji, and the Shunzhi Emperor. Ebilun is reinstated to his position as duke and is allowed to fulfill his duty as a bodyguard in the inner court.
 
5th Month:
The late Empress Dowager Cihe, née Tunggiya, is given additional posthumous titles, and she is included in the worship at the Imperial Ancestral Temple (Tai miao).
 
7th Month:
Offerings are made for the late Empress Dowager Cihe at the Hall for Ancestral Worship (Fengxian dian).
 
8th Month:
The Censorate (Ducha yuan) is ordered to examine princes and grand ministers participating in sacrifices if they fail to show proper solemnity.
The Kangxi Emperor accompanies the grand empress dowager and empress dowager and makes his first visit to the Xiao Tomb.
 
10th Month:
The sixteen-line Sacred Edict (Shengyu) by the Kangxi Emperor is published.
The Three Palace Academies (Nei sanyuan) are renamed the Grand Secretariat (Nei ge).
The grand secretaries of the Hall of Central Harmony (Zhonghe dian), Hall of Preserving Harmony (Baohe dian), and Hall of Literary Brilliance (Wenhua dian) are reinstated.
The Ministry of Rites (Li bu) is ordered to conduct the Classics Colloquium (Jing yan).
 
Xinhai Year (approx. 1671)
Kangxi Reign, 10th Year
 
1st Month:
Changning, the fifth son of the Shunzhi Emperor, is named the Prince of Gong.
 
2nd Month:
The throne orders the compilation of Elaborated Meanings of the Classic of Filial Piety (Xiaojing yanyi).
 
3rd Month:
Young princes are urged to study the classics and practice horseback riding and archery. They are warned against relying on their noble status and abandoning restraint.
Daily lecturers (jiangguan) are appointed.
 
4th Month:
Revisions of The Venerated Teachings of Nurhaci (Taizu shengxun) and The Venerated Teachings of Hong Taiji (Taizong shengxun) are commissioned.
By imperial edict, unattached and orphaned members of the imperial clan are to receive regular care. This edict is added to the law.
Daily lectures begin.
 
9th Month:
With the unification of the empire, the Kangxi Emperor venerates the late Taizu (Nurhaci) and Taizong (Hong Taiji) at their mausoleums in Mukden (or Shengjing, present-day Shenyang). Accompanying the grand empress dowager and empress dowager, the Kangxi Emperor visits the Fu and Zhao Tombs.
The emperor and his entourage visit Mukden. Presiding over court in the Palace of Pure Tranquility (Qingning gong), the emperor lavishes his host of officials with a grand banquet.
Officials are sent to make offerings at the mausolems of late princes and grand ministers.
 
Renzi Year (approx. 1672)
Kangxi Reign, 11th Year

2nd Month:
For the first time in his reign, the Kangxi Emperor conducts the Ploughing Ceremony (Gengji li, also known as the First Furrow Ceremony) at the Altar of the God of Agriculture (Xiannong tan).
Offerings to the sun are made at the Temple of the Sun in the eastern outskirts of the imperial city.

5th Month:
The compilation of The Veritable Records of the Shunzhi Emperor (Shizu shilu) is completed.
 
11th Month:
The Kangxi Emperor goes on an excursion to the South Gardens (Nan yuan). An imperial residence is newly constructed in the gardens.
 
12th Month:
The Prince of Yu, Fuciowan; the Prince of Zhuang, Boggodo; the Commandery Prince of Hui, Bo-weng-guo-nuo; and the Commandery Prince of Wen, Meng-e, write to the throne asking for a leave of absence from involvement in imperial politics. Their requests are granted.
Giyešu, the Prince of Kang, and Yolo, the Prince of An, also write to the throne asking for a leave of absence. Their requests are denied.
 
Guichou Year (approx. 1673)
Kangxi Reign, 12th Year

1st Month:
The emperor takes an excursion to the South Gardens (Nan yuan) where he conducts a large-scale military inspection of the Eight Banners. After this, large-scale military inspections are conducted at the Lugou Bridge (also known as the Marco Polo Bridge), Mount Yuquan (Yuquan shan), or Dolon Nor (in present-day Inner Mongolia). (The precise location for inspections is not yet formally established nor is the interval of the inspections set for every three years, as will be the custom in the future.)
 
2nd Month:
The imperial Classics Colloquium (Jing yan) is held. Lecturers are ordered to be on duty daily.
Officials in the Bannermen’s School are given the Extended Meaning of the Great Learning (Daxue yanyi) to translate into the Manchu language.
 
3rd Month:
The Prince Pacifier of the South, Shang Kexi, requests permission to retire. His request is granted. He requests that his son Shang Zhixin inherit his noble title and continue his rule of Guangdong. This request is denied. He is ordered to withdraw from his feudal territory and return to his home in Liaodong.
 
6th Month:
Members of the Eight Banners are forbidden from burying slaves along with their dead.
 
7th Month:
Another revision of The Venerated Teachings of Hong Taiji (Taizong shengxun) is commissioned.
Wu Sangui and Geng Jingzhong file false requests for their withdrawal from feudal lands in an attempt to assess the will of the court.
 
8th Month:
Han supervising secretaries and censors are tested in the Hall of Preserving Harmony (Baohe dian). Unqualified candidates are rejected. Officials are sent to Yunnan, Guangdong, and Fujian to implement the revocation of feudal lands.
The Ministry of Rites is issued the following order, “Regarding sacrifices and ceremonies, written etiquette must be fastidiously prepared, and requirements are to be lucid and standard”. The ministry is ordered to thoroughly research the ancient rites and establish them through careful deliberation and discussion.
 
9th Month:
The eunuch supervisor-in-chief is ordered to inspect the diligence and indolence of all palace eunuchs. 
 
11th Month:
Wu Sangui murders Governor Zhu Guozhi and incites an army in rebellion against the empire.
 
12th Month:
Wu Sangui rises in opposition against the revocation of feudal lands and incites rebellion. Word of the rebellion spreads to the imperial capital. His son, Wu Yingxiong, an imperial son-in-law, is imprisoned. By imperial edict, Wu Sangui is stripped of his noble title. This edict is announced throughout the empire.
A capital resident named Yang Qilong falsely claims to be a prince of the former imperial Zhu family and rises in a military insurrection. After this incident, Yang Qilong escapes, and his coconspirators are executed. (This insurrection is hereafter known as the “Third Prince of Zhu Incident”, Zhusan taizi.)
Han officials are forbidden from attending sacrificial rites in the imperial shamanic shrine (Manchu, tangse).
 
Jiayin Year (approx. 1674)
Kangxi Reign, 13th Year

1st Month:
The seventh son of the Shunzhi Emperor, Longhi (Chinese name Longxi), is enfeoffed as the Prince of Chun.
 
2nd Month:
General Sun Yanling rises in revolt in Guangxi.
The grand empress dowager announces that soldiers on the frontline in the suppression of the Three Feudatories will be richly rewarded with silver from the palace storehouses.
The construction of new instruments for the Directorate of Astronomy is complete.
 
3rd Month:
Geng Jingzhong rebels. Governor-general Fan Chengmo is imprisoned. Zheng Jing is invited from Taiwan to aid in the revolt.

5th Month:
Due to difficulty in labor, the empress, née Hešeri, dies in the Palace of Earthly Tranquility (Kunning gong). The Kangxi Emperor recesses imperial court proceedings for five days. The emperor personally accompanies the funerary procession to the mausoleum at the Fortress of Securing Prosperity (Gonghua cheng) in the Shahe area north of the capital.
 
6th Month:
The grand minister of the Imperial Household Department (Neiwu fu) is required to organize bondservants and slaves (Manchu booi) of the three Banner guards brigade (hujun ying) for guarding palace entrances and the imperial retinue, carrying lamps, and guiding processions.
 
12th Month:
The Kangxi Emperor prepares to personally lead his forces in the suppression of the Three Feudatories Revolt. The princes and grand ministers strongly dissuade him from that intention on the grounds that the capital is the fundamental power base and that the grand empress dowager is growing older. The emperor is ultimately dissuaded.
Provincial Military Commander Wang Fuchen rebels in the Revolt of the Three Feudatories in Shaanxi Province and kills Military Commissioner Molo of the Irgen Gioro clan.
 
Yimao Year (approx. 1675)
Kangxi Reign, 14th Year

4th Month:
Per imperial order, the format of the Classics Colloquium (Jing yan) is established. Ministers are to begin with opening lectures. These lectures are to be followed by the emperor’s personal lecture. Finally, post-lecture discussions are to be maintained until an adequate explanation and elaboration are achieved.
 
5th Month (Intercalary):
The emperor visits Mount Yuquan to view the fields of grain.
 
9th Month:
The Kangxi Emperor pays his first homage at the Ming mausoleums. He makes offerings at the Chang Tomb and dispatches officials to make sacrifices at the other Ming mausoleums.
 
11th Month:
Officials are reestablished for the Household Administration of the Heir Apparent (Zhanshi fu).
 
12th Month:
The emperor’s son, Yinreng, is named heir apparent. On this grand occasion, officials are sent to make sacrifices to Heaven and Earth, at the Imperial Ancestral Temple, and to the gods of land and grain. The choice is announced throughout the empire. The emperor mercifully issues a grand pardon across the empire.
 
Bingchen Year (approx. 1676)
Kangxi Reign, 15th Year

1st Month:
Upon the selection of the heir apparent, the grand empress dowager and empress dowager are given honorary titles. Due to the financial cost of the war and the burden on the common people, the construction of Empress Renxiao’s mausoleum is paused.
 
10th Month:
The Kangxi Emperor orders the lecturer to speak on The Comprehensive Mirror (Tongjian, 1084 CE, a historical record compiled by Sima Guang and others).
Geng Jingzhong surrenders as his forces diminish. The Revolt of the Three Feudatories is gradually suppressed in Zhejiang, Fujian, and Shaanxi.
 
Dingsi Year (approx. 1677)
Kangxi Reign, 16th Year

2nd Month:
The emperor travels to the South Gardens (Nan yuan) where he holds a grand military inspection. The grand ministers, grand secretaries, chancellors, and all civil officials are ordered to don armor.
 
3rd Month: 
To replace related institutions of the Thirteen Agencies established during the Shunzhi reign, the Imperial Household Department (Neiwu fu) establishes the Storage Office (Guangchu si), Office of Palace Ceremony (Zhangyi si), Office of Accounts (Kuaiji si), Office of Palace Construction (Yingzao si), Office of Palace Justice (Shenxing si), Office of Imperial Pasturages (Qingfeng si), and the Office of the Palace Stud (Shangsi yuan). Additionally, the Office of Respectful Service (Jingshi fang, which kept records of the emperor’s sexual history with concubines) is established under the supervision of the department.
By imperial order, the three Banners of the Imperial Household Department are each arranged to have five company commanders. The rank of regimental commander (canling) is established for the Courageous Guard (xiaoqi) and of the Guards Brigade (hujun). The regimental commanders of the Courageous Guard are to simultaneously manage the affairs of the Banners.
Those members of the Hanlin Academy proficient in composing rhymed-prose and writing calligraphy are ordered to make contributions in their areas of specialty.
Jin Fu is appointed as a director-general to administer affairs regarding the Grand Canal, flood control, and river dredging projects.
 
7th Month:
The Kangxi Emperor conducts imperial affairs from an auxiliary palace (bian dian) where he summons grand secretaries to come and discuss literary classics and history. The factional conflicts of the Ming regime are discussed with added warnings from the emperor.
The wet nurse (née Piao) of the Shunzhi Emperor is named the Lady of Sacred Service (Fengsheng furen), and she is granted court dress that accords with the rank of a duke’s wife.
 
8th Month:
Ebilun’s daughter, the honored consort (gui fei) Lady Niohuru, is named empress. Lady Donggiya is appointed as honored consort (gui fei). Lady Hešeri is appointed as Concubine Xi (lit. "Merry"; an imperial concubine of the fourth rank, pin). Lady Li is named Concubine An (lit. "Peaceful"; an imperial concubine of the fourth rank, pin). Lady Janggiya is named Concubine Jing (lit. "Reverent"; an imperial concubine of the fourth rank, pin). Lady Dong is named Concubine Duan (lit. "Upright"; an imperial concubine of the fourth rank, pin). The grand minister supervisor of the Imperial Household Department reports the following imperial command to the twenty overseers, “All women enlisted to palace service and entering the palace for official duties must leave the palace premises immediately after all duties are completed. Idle loitering is not to be tolerated. Happenings outside the palace are not to be discussed within the palace. Eavesdropping on palace happenings and the sharing of such happenings is forbidden.” 
 
9th Month:
The emperor leaves the imperial capital to visit the Xiao Tomb. He takes a tour of the mausoleum’s vicinity.
 
10th Month:
The South Study (Nan shufang) is constructed. Expositor-in-waiting Zhang Ying the academician and Secretary Gao Shiqi are ordered to take up duties in the new study.
 
11th Month:
The emperor calls for the worship of the god of the Changbai Mountains. Officials are dispatched to offer sacrifices.

Wuwu Year, (approx. 1678)
Kangxi Reign, 17th Year
 
1st Month:
All ministers and officials are ordered to recommend talented, erudite men to prepare counsel and receive personal evaluation by the emperor. 
Grand Secretary Li Wei recommends Cao Rong and seventy other men. The recommendations are sent to the capital to request orders from the emperor.
 
2nd Month:
The Explanatory Preface to the Lectures on the Four Books (Sishu jiang shuyi xu) is compiled.
The empress, née Niohuru, dies in the Palace of Earthly Tranquility (Kunning gong). Imperial court proceedings pause for five days. She is posthumously known as Empress Xiaozhao.
 
3rd Month:
Wu Sangui seeks to establish himself as an emperor in Hengzhou (present-day Hengyang, Hunan Province) with his Zhaowu reign.
 
7th Month:
Academician Chen Tingjing of the Hanlin Academy and Reader-in-waiting Ye Fang'ai the academician assume duties in the South Study.
Wu Sangui declares himself to be emperor in Hengzhou (present-day Hengyang, Hunan Province).
 
8th Month:
King Alfonso VI of Portugal sends an envoy to the Forbidden City.
The emperor holds the Classics Colloquium (Jing yan). He gifts Chen Tingjing and others with the Imperial Poetry Collection (Yuzhi shiji).
Wu Sangui dies.
The Eternal Calendar of Kangxi (Kangxi yong nianli) is distributed throughout the empire.
 
10th Month:
The emperor’s fourth son, Yinzhen (Manchu Injen), is born to Lady Uya.

Jiwei Year (approx. 1679)
Kangxi Reign, 18th Year

1st Month:
The suppression of the Revolt of the Three Feudatories is secured. The Kangxi Emperor announces the military victory from the Meridian Gate (Wu men).
 
3rd Month:
The emperor personally evaluates the knowledge and literary skills of numerous candidates at the Belvedere of Embodying Benevolence (Tiren ge). A group of fifty successful candidates, including Peng Sunyu, are accepted as readers-in-waiting, expositors-in-waiting, compilers, and examining editors.
Academicians Xu Yuanwen and Ye Fang'ai and Mentor Zhang Yushu serve as directors-general for the compilation of the History of the Ming (Ming shi).

7th Month:
The Prince of Chun, Longhi (Chinese name, Longxi), falls ill.
An earthquake rocks the capital. The emperor distributes 100,000 taels of silver in relief funds from the treasury.
 
8th Month:
The emperor prays at the Temple of Heaven after the earthquake.
 
12th Month:
The Hall of Supreme Harmony (Taihe dian) is destroyed in a fire.

Gengshen Year (approx. 1680)
Kangxi Reign, 19th Year

4th Month:
Academician Zhang Ying and other academicians are rotationally chosen for court service. Their duties involve daily consultancy and compensations for subordinates.
Gao Shiqi and Li Du’nereceive appointments as Hanlin Academy officials.
Hanlin Academy officials are ordered to lecture on The Comprehensive Mirror (Tongjian) every evening in the Southern Study (Nan shufang, which was originally a personal imperial study but from 1659-1730 served as an important workplace for Hanlin Academy scholars).
The Jade Genealogy (Yu die, the imperial genealogy) is submitted by the Court of the Imperial Clan (Zongren fu) to the emperor.
The Hall of Martial Valor (Wuying dian) workshop is instituted. Imperial orders note, “Concubines and consorts are not permitted to enter any area where craftsmen are working. In the evening, after the craftsmen have departed, entrance to these areas is permitted.”
 
10th Month:
Lady Uya, the mother of Yinzhen, is granted the title of Virtuous Concubine (De pin; an imperial concubine of the fourth rank, pin).
 
Xinyou Year (approx. 1681)
Kangxi Reign, 20th Year

1st Month:
Further lecturers (jiang guan) are appointed.
 
2nd Month:
Yinreng, the heir apparent, begins lessons under master instructors, namely, Grand Secretaries Zhang Ying and Li Guangdi.
 
3rd Month:
The late Empress Renxiao and Empress Xiaozhao are interred within the Eastern Qing Tombs at Mount Changrui.
 
7th Month:
In celebration of the suppression of the Revolt of the Three Feudatories, a feast is held at the Ocean Terrace (Ying tai) in the Western Gardens. 
All officials from vice-directors of ministry bureaus on up are given various polychrome textiles.
 
11th Month:
The General-in-chief of Pacifying the Frontier and Suppressing Invaders (Dingyuan pingkou da jiangjun) leads the Qing army to Yunnan. Wu Shifan commits suicide. The Revolt of the Three Feudatories is completely suppressed.
 
12th Month:
On the occasion of the suppression of the Three Feudatories Revolt, the emperor receives congratulations at the Gate of Supreme Harmony (Taihe men). The news is announced throughout the empire.
The grand empress dowager and empress dowager receive additional honorary titles.
Honored Consort Lady Tonggiya is advanced to the status of imperial honored consort. Lady Niohuru, the younger sister of Empress Xiaozhaoren, is advanced to the status of honored consort. Lady Nara, Concubine Hui (lit. "Favored"; an imperial concubine of the fourth rank, pin), is advanced to the status of Consort-in-ordinary Hui (an imperial concubine of the third rank, fei). Lady Gorolo, Concubine Yi (lit. "Proper"; an imperial concubine of the fourth rank, pin), is advanced to the status of Consort-in-ordinary Yi (an imperial concubine of the third rank, fei). Concubine 
Rong (lit. "Glorious"; an imperial concubine of the fourth rank, pin) is advanced to Consort-in-ordinary Rong (an imperial concubine of the third rank, fei). Imperial mercies are declared throughout the empire. Members of the imperial clan and feudal lords are rewarded. Feudal titles are bestowed. Quotas for metropolitan graduates (jinshi) are increased. Recluses (talented literati who live secluded lives) are summoned for personal evaluation by the emperor. Loyal, filial sons receive personal praise from the emperor. The childless-elderly and orphans receive aid. 
Criminals who would normally be punished receive full pardons.
This year, the Kangxi Emperor summons Yu Chenglong, the provincial governor of Zhili (approximately the area of present-day Hebei Province), and bestows upon him the title First Among Honest and Upright Officials.
 
Renxu Year (approx. 1682)
Kangxi Reign, 21st Year

1st Month:
At the Lantern Festival (Shangyuan jie) on the fifteenth of the month, the emperor holds a feast for ministers, enjoys lantern displays, and presents a poem in the cypress beam style (bailiang ti, named after the Bailiang Platform in the Weiyang Palace). The Preface to the Poem of the Peaceful Feast (Shengping jiayan shi xu) is engraved in stone at the Hanlin Academy.

2nd Month:
With the pacification of Yunnan, officials are sent to make sacrifices at the five sacred mountains and four sacred rivers, mausoleums of ancient emperors, and the home of Confucius. The Kangxi Emperor observes rituals of fasting and abstinence at Prospect Hill (Jing shan).
The emperor holds birthday celebrations for the grand empress dowager.
The emperor goes on an eastern tour and visits imperial mausoleums. Yinreng, the heir apparent, accompanies his father on the tour.
 
3rd Month:
The Kangxi Emperor visits the Fu and Zhao Tombs. He stays in Mukden (present-day Shenyang), and then visits the Yong Tomb. The emperor travels through the mountains to Ula for a hunting expedition. Sacrifices are made to Mount Changbai (the main peak of the Changbai Mountains) from a distance.
 
7th Month:
With the surrender of Zheng Chenggong in Taiwan, the Qing court names Shi Lang as the provincial military commander of naval forces at Fujian in preparation for the reclamation of Taiwan. (Shi Lang was a commander under Zheng Chenggong but later surrendered to the Qing court.)
 
9th Month:
Per imperial edict, daily court is held at the Gate of Heavenly Purity (Qianqing men). During spring and summer, court begins at seven o’clock in the morning (chenchu). During fall and winter, court begins at eight o’clock in the morning (chenzheng).
 
10th Month:
By imperial order, The Veritable Records of Nurhaci (Taizu shilu) is revised. The Venerated Teachings of Three Reigns (Sanchao shengxun) and The Suppression of the Three Rebels (Pingding sanni fanglüe, about the defeat of the three rebels Wu Sangui, Shang Kexi, and Geng Jingzhong) are compiled.
 
12th Month:
Lang-tan and Peng-chun are dispatched to conduct reconnaissance on Albazin—the first Russian settlement on the Amur River (called Heilong jiang in Chinese). After receiving their memorial to the throne, the Kangxi Emperor decides to temporarily refrain from attack. The general of Ningguta is dispatched to prepare for an attack against Albazin.
 
Guihai Year (approx. 1683)
Kangxi Reign, 22nd Year

2nd Month:
The Kangxi Emperor makes his first visit to Mount Wutai.
 
5th Month:
The Firearms Brigade (Huoqi ying) is established for Han troops.

6th Month:
The emperor goes on a hunting expedition north of Gubeikou (in the far northeast outskirts of Beijing). The first hunt at Mulan (later to be known as the Mulan Hunting Grounds) is held.
 
8th Month:
Per imperial orders, during the Classics Colloquium (Jing yan), officials from grand secretaries (daxue shi) on down are to serve in rotation.
 
9th Month:
The number of Oirats (the western Mongols) on tribute envoys is limited.
 
10th Month:
A general is appointed and posted on the Amur River (or Heilong jiang) at Aigun (Manchu  Sahaliyan Ula, present-day Aihui).
 
11th Month:
Taiwan is reclaimed, and sacrifices are made at the Xiao Tomb to report the victorious campagin.
 
12th Month:
Daily Lectures on the Book of Changes (Yijing rijiang) is completed. The Kangxi Emperor writes a foreword, and the work is distributed.
 
Jiazi Year (approx. 1684)
Kangxi Reign, 23rd Year

1st Month:
Orders are made for the reordering of court-audience etiquette.
The compilation of the first part of the Collected Statutes of the Great Qing (Daqing huidian) is begun. This part of the comprehensive work covers happenings from the first year of the Chongde reign to the twenty-fifth year of the Kangxi reign.
 
2nd Month:
Tensions are high as Saksu arrives with troops at Albazin.
 
4th Month:
Lecturers are ordered to prepare accurate, pointed, and clear syllabi as a matter of reverence. Lectures are to be concise and not tediously long.
 
9th Month:
The Kangxi Emperor begins his first southern tour in his imperial carriage.
 
10th Month:
The restrictions on maritime trade (haijin) begun in the eighteenth year of the Shunzhi reign are lifted.
The emperor’s southern tour arrives at the Yellow River. Inspections are made of key points along the north bank.
 
11th Month:
The southern imperial tour arrives at Jiangning. The emperor visits the Ming dynasty Xiao Tomb.
On the return journey, the imperial cavalcade is quartered at Qufu, where the emperor visits the Confucian Temple and shows his respects at the statue of Confucius. A lecture is held. The emperor makes an offering of wine at the Confucius family mausoleums, where he inscribes “Model Teacher for Myriad Generations” (Wanshi shibiao) in calligraphy and leaves a revolving yellow canopy (qubing huanggai) as tribute.
This year, according to Shi Lang's advice, Taiwan is established as a prefecture with counties under the provincial administration of Fujian Province.
 
Yichou Year (approx. 1685)
Kangxi Reign, 24th Year

1st Month:
The grand minister supervisor of the Imperial Household Department is ordered to “move the Rooms of Auspicious Omen (Jizheng fang, where palace women recovered from illness) from the three outer palaces located outside the imperial city to a quiet, secluded location within the imperial city.”
Per imperial orders, during sacrifices at the Imperial Ancestral Temple, gentleman-attendants of ceremonies need not avoid the reading of taboo Chinese characters, namely those that appear in names of late emperors while reading ceremonial statements.
Officials of the Hanlin Academy and Household Administration of the Heir Apparent are examined in the Hall of Preserving Harmony (Baohe dian). 
The Kangxi Emperor personally determines rankings. Officials who show themselves to be incompetent are appointed to other posts.
 
2nd Month:
Per imperial order, if any Manchu bondservants or household eunuchs flee and are privately castrated without permission, they are forbidden from serving in the palace.

3rd Month:
A stele personally composed and inscribed by the Kangxi Emperor is erected in the Confucian Temple.

4th Month:
The Jingshan Palace School is established to train the idle sons of the three Banners of the Imperial Household Department.

5th Month:
Political Institutions (Zhengzhi dianzhi) is compiled.
The Hall of Mental Acuity (Chuanxin dian) is built to the east of the Hall of Literary Brilliance (Wenhua dian). Before holding the Classics Colloquium (Jing yan), officials are sent to this newly built hall to pay homage to Confucius.
Peng-chun and his troops attack Albazin (in the present-day Skovorodinsky District, Russia). The Russian troops are debilitated, arrange terms of surrender, and retreat to Nerchinsk.
 
Bingyin Year (approx. 1686)
Kangxi Reign, 25th Year

1st Month:
Russian forces recapture Albazin.
 
2nd Month:
The revision of The Venerated Teachings of Nurhaci (Taizu shengxun) is completed.
Reconstruction of the Hall of Literary Brilliance (Wenhua dian) is completed.
The Kangxi Emperor sacrifices to Confucius at the Hall of Mental Acuity (Chuanxin dian).
Yinxiang, the thirteenth son of the emperor, is born to Lady Janggiya.
 
3rd Month:
Orders are made for the compilation of the Gazetteer of the Great Qing (Daqing yitongzhi).
 
7th Month:
The Ministry of Personnel submits a memorial with regulations stipulating that officials in the capital ranking from readers-in-waiting, mentors, and officials with inferior scholarship on down shall be dispatched as provincial sub-prefectural magistrates and second assistant salt controllers.
Qing forces besiege Albazin.
 
9th Month:
Tsar Peter I of Russia writes requesting peace.
The siege of Albazin ends.
 
12th Month:
The emperor instructs by edict, “In the rectification of ceremony, supervision by the Censorate must be stringent. Even if We are found to be insufficiently respectful, a memorial on the matter should be submitted”.
 
Dingmao Year (approx. 1687)
Kangxi Reign, 26th Year

2nd Month:
Commanders-in-chief and vice commanders-in-chief of the Eight Banners are ordered to alternately take duty posts in the Forbidden City.
 
3rd Month:
The Kangxi Emperor holds court and receives audiences at the Gate of Supreme Harmony (Taihe men). Grand secretaries and others are instructed to examine government affairs for errors. Any errors are to be noted and not concealed.
 
4th Month:
The officials compiling and revising the History of the Ming (Ming shi) are ordered to reference the veritable records. After the compilation of the History of the Ming (Ming shi) is complete, the veritable records are to be preserved for future criticism.
 
5th Month:
Chen Tingjing and Tang Bin are summoned to compose written works in various styles of calligraphy. The emperor states, “When We read sacred texts and discuss history with Xiong Cilü, all questions must be voiced. Subsequent lectures by Zhang Ying and Chen Tingjing are superbly beneficial”.
Stele inscriptions are engraved for the Duke of Zhou, Confucius, and Mencius using the emperor’s personal calligraphic style.
 
11th Month:
The grand empress dowager falls ill. The Kangxi Emperor personally cares for her in the Palace of Compassion and Tranquility (Cining gong).
 
12th Month:
Because of the grand empress dowager’s illness, the Kangxi Emperor personally prepares words of blessing and walks to the Temple of Heaven to pray. The grand empress dowager dies. The Kangxi Emperor cuts his hair, dons coarse mourning clothes, and resides in a small mourning hut by the Palace of Compassion and Tranquility (Cining gong).
 
Wuchen Year (approx. 1688)
Kangxi Reign, 27th Year
 
2nd Month:
The inheritance of noble titles and yearly allotments for the imperial clan are established.
Censor Guo Xiu submits a memorial to the throne revealing that Mingju, Yu Guozhu, and others have united as political allies. Mingju and Yu Guozhu are stripped of their official titles and duties. Mingju’s allies are dismissed from official positions.
 
4th Month:
The Kangxi Emperor personally accompanies the bier of the grand empress dowager for temporary burial. Upon her official burial, the mausoleum is called the Zhao Tomb (lit. “Bright Tomb”).
 
9th Month:
The Oirat (Dzungar) Mongols led by Galdan Boshugtu Khan invade the region of the Khalkha Mongols. The Khalkha relocate near Qing territory. 
 
10th Month:
The grand empress dowager is posthumously named Empress Xiaozhuangwen. Her tablet is placed in the Imperial Ancestral Temple (Tai miao) where offerings are made for her. This posthumous honor is declared throughout the empire.
 
12th Month:
A stele bearing the name Stele of Holy Virtues and Divine Merit (Shengde shengong bei) is erected at the Fu and Zhao Tombs. The inscription is composed by the emperor.
 
Jisi Year (approx. 1689)
Kangxi Reign, 28th Year
 
1st Month:
The Kangxi Emperor takes a second tour of the South where he personally inspects workers at river engineering projects.
 
2nd Month:
The Kangxi Emperor arrives in Shaoxing, Zhejiang Province and makes sacrifices at the mausoleum of Yu the Great (a legendary ruler of ancient China renowned for his success in flood control). The emperor composes an inscription for the sacrifice personally writes the title. He performs the rite of nine kowtows. The engraved inscription title reads, “Earth is Calm, Heaven is Triumphant” (Di ping tian cheng, which refers to Yu the Great’s successful control of flood waters and the triumph of life).
 
3rd Month:
The Kangxi Emperor visits the Ming dynasty Xiao Tomb in Nanjing.
Orders are made for the regular recruitment (keju) civil service examinations for the Eight Banners to begin with an inspection of the candidates’ horseback riding and archery skills.
 
4th Month:
The Kangxi Emperor personally writes the foreword for the Encomium for the Most Venerable Sage Confucius  (Zhisheng xianshi Kongzi zan) stele. He also prepares inscriptions praising the Confucian scholars Yan Hui, Zeng Shen, Kong Ji, and Mencius. These inscriptions are publicly displayed in the Confucian Temple.
 
5th Month:
Elaborated Meanings of the Classic of Filial Piety (Xiaojing yanyi) is distributed.
 
7th Month:
On the ninth day of this lunar month, Honored Consort Tong is officially named as empress. The next day, the empress dies. Her posthumous title is Empress Xiaoyi.
Songgotu is dispatched to Nerchinsk for negotiations with the Russia envoy. The Treaty of Nerchinsk between China and Russia is drafted and signed. This agreement determines eastern borders between China and Russia.
 
10th Month:
The late Empress Xiaoyi is laid to rest among the Eastern Qing Tombs at Zunhua (present-day Hebei Province).
 
11th Month:
The memorial tablet of the late Empress Xiaoyi is placed in the Hall for Ancestral Worship (Fengxian dian).
 
12th Month:
The emperor receives the empress dowager in the new Palace of Compassion and Tranquility (Cining gong).
 
Gengwu Year (approx. 1690)
Kangxi Reign, 29th Year
 
2nd Month:
The emperor visits the Xiao Tomb in Zunhua (present-day Hebei Province).
 
3rd Month:
By imperial orders, the compilation of the History of Three Reigns (Sanchao guoshi, regarding the reigns of Nurhaci, Hong Taiji, and the Shunzhi Emperor) is commenced.
 
4th Month:
Collected Statutes of the Great Qing (Daqing huidian) is complete.
The Hall of Literature (Wenshu guan) is renamed the Imperial Library (Yushu chu) and becomes a center for rubbings of stone inscriptions and copying the emperor’s poetry and other works.
 
7th Month:
Galdan Boshugtu Khan invades Ujimqin (in present-day Inner Mongolia) and stirs up rebellion.
Fuciowan, the Prince of Yu is named “Defender of the Frontier General-in-chief” (fuyuan da jiangjun). Vice-general Yinzhen, the fourteenth imperial son, departs from Gubeikou in the northern outskirts of the imperial capital. Changning, the Prince of Gong, is named Pacifier of the Frontier General-in-chief and departs from Xifengkou for the punitive campaign. The Kangxi Emperor departs to personally command the campaign.  
Stopping at Boluohetun (present-day Longhua County, Hebei Province), the emperor returns due to illness.
 
8th Month:
Qing forces battle Galdan Boshugtu Khan’s army at Ulan Butung. The khan’s army retreats. Galdan Boshugtu Khan sends the lama Jedrung Losang Palden (also known as Jilong Khutukhtu) to discuss peace terms. Therefore, Fuciowan does not advance his troops immediately. The Kangxi Emperor harshly criticizes Fuciowan.
 
11th Month:
Fuciowan and others are interrogated.
 
12th Month:
The Kangxi Emperor visits mausoleums and presents sacrificial offerings for Empress Xiaozhuangwen for the third year.
 
Xinwei Year (approx. 1691)
Kangxi Reign, 30th Year
 
3rd Month:
The Manchu translation of a detailed outline of The Comprehensive Mirror (Tongjian) is complete. The Kangxi Emperor writes his preface for the work.
 
4th Month:
Upon the Khalka Mongols’ submission to the Qing throne, the Kangxi Emperor personally visits the frontier. Alliance negotiations are held at Dolon Nor.
 
5th Month:
The emperor commands the Khalka Mongols to jointly appoint jasagh (heads of Mongol banners) with forty-nine Mongol banners (in present-day Inner Mongolia) for duties regarding administration and inspection. Each banner is commanded to adhere to this imperial command.
 
11th Month:
By imperial edict, narrow partisanship and aggressive intolerance are strictly forbidden.
 
Renshen Year (approx. 1692)
Kangxi Reign, 31st Year
 
9th Month:
Grand military inspections are conducted at Mount Yuquan (lit. “Jade Spring Mountain”). The Garden of Mental Purity (Chengxin yuan) at Mount Yuquan is renamed the Garden of Still Brightness (Jingming yuan).
 
10th Month:
The practices of officials sending fresh tea as tribute from the provinces and congratulatory memorials to the imperial family are discontinued.
 
12th Month:
The Khorchin Mongol prince Sha-jin is summoned to the capital where he personally accepts a secret assignment to ensnare Galdan Boshugtu Khan.
 
Guiyou Year (approx. 1693)
Kangxi Reign, 32nd Year
 
2nd Month:
Since the eunuchs' monthly stipends are rapidly spent and due to the wretched state of their garments, imperial orders are made for eunuchs to be offered official monetary loans—a remedy with precedent in the Eight Banners.
Tsewang Rabtan, nephew and rival of Galdan Boshugtu Khan, sends an envoy with tribute to the Qing capital. The envoy brings news that the Qing envoy Ma Di has been killed and shares secret information regarding Galdan Boshugtu Khan.
 
9th Month:
Reconstructions begin at Mukden (present-day Shenyang).
 
Jiaxu Year (approx. 1694)
Kangxi Reign, 33rd Year
 
2nd Month:
The grand secretaries request the emperor to hold court at the palace gate once every three to four days. The Kangxi Emperor responds, “Yesterday grand ministers over the age of sixty were instructed to present reports to the throne every other day, and this instruction is intended to accommodate the older ministers. We, however, would never dare to be leisurely; daily court will be held as usual.” Because the Kangxi Emperor impressively accommodates the older ministers, grand ministers over the age of sixty (in sui) present reports every other day. As a result, the grand secretaries ask the emperor whether or not court may be held at the palace gate once every three to four days. The Kangxi Emperor declines the request.
 
3rd Month:
Minister of Rites Sha-mu-ha is dismissed from his post for reporting the irreverence of the heir apparent during sacrifices at the Hall for Ancestral Worship (Fengxian dian).
 
5th Month:
The Hanlin Academy, Household Administration of the Heir Apparent (Zhanshi fu), and Directorate of Education (Guozi jian) are ordered to send four officials for duty in the Southern Study (Nanshu fang) on alternate days.
By imperial edict, the compilation of A Classified Repository of Profound Appraisals(Yuanjian leihan) begins.
The emperor tours the vicinity around the capital and makes an inspection of dams on waterways.
 
5th Month (Intercalary):
The Kangxi Emperor personally examines officials with Hanlin Academy backgrounds in the Garden of Abundant Lustre (Fengze yuan).
 
7th Month:
The Kangxi Emperor requests officials with literary backgrounds. The grand secretaries recommend Xu Yuanxue, Wang Hongxu, Gao Shiqi, Han Tan, and Tang Sunhua. The emperor responds, “Han Tan was not demoted in rank; his original rank should be restored. Xu Yuanxue, Wang Hongxu, and Gao Shiqi may be occupied with literary compilations. Furthermore, summon Xu Bingyi.”
 
11th Month:
Lady Niohuru, also known as Honored Consort Wenxi (lit. “Warm and Joyful”), dies.
The Tiger-hunting Brigade (Huqiang ying) is established and administered by three different banners.
 
Yihai Year (approx. 1695)
Kangxi Reign, 34th Year
 
2nd Month:
The reconstruction of the Hall of Supreme Harmony (Taihe dian) begins.
 
5th Month:
Further tours are made in the outskirts of the capital. New dams and inlets at seaports are inspected. The Temple of the Sea God (Haishen miao) is constructed.
 
6th Month:
Lady Si is named the consort of Heir Apparent Yinreng.
 
11th Month:
The emperor conducts a grand military inspection at the South Gardens (Nan yuan). Orders are issued for codifying the use of horns and drums in military inspections.
 
Bingzi Year (approx. 1696)
Kangxi Reign, 35th Year
 
1st Month:
By imperial edict, the emperor will personally lead an attack on Galdan Boshugtu Khan.
A school for eunuchs is established in the Plantain Garden (Jiao yuan) in the Western Gardens (Xi yuan).
 
2nd Month:
The Kangxi Emperor personally leads an expedition against Galdan Boshugtu Khan. The heir apparent is ordered to stay behind and handle all government reports.
Lady Hešeri, a concubine, dies. She is posthumously named Consort-in-ordinary Ping (lit. "Peaceful"; an imperial concubine of the third rank, fei).
 
5th Month:
Galdan Boshugtu Khan’s position is found via reconnaissance. The Kangxi Emperor leads troops in the first assault. The remaining troops then advance in a formation of two flanks (lit. "two wings"). Secretary Abida, then serving at a frontier outpost, reports that Galdan Boshugtu Kahn has learned of the imperial army’s attack and has fled. The Kangxi Emperor pursues with light cavalry. The emperor writes to the empress dowager reporting the state of military affairs and approximates a date for his return to the capital. The emperor pursues the khan to Mount Tuona.  
Returning from the pursuit, the emperor commands Grand Minister Assistant Commander of the Imperial Guardsmen Maska to continue in pursuit. The Kangxi Emperor returns in victory. Defender of the Frontier General-in-chief Fiyanggū defeats Galdan Boshugtu Kahn at Zuunmod (southeast of present-day Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia). The imperial army decapitates three-thousand soldiers. Galdan Boshugtu Kahn’s wife, Lady Anu, is killed in the battle. Galdan Boshugtu Kahn flees with his remaining cavalry.
 
7th Month:
On the occasion of the pacification of the Gobi Desert, a stone inscription is prepared for display in the Directorate of Education.
 
10th Month:
Defender of the Frontier General-in-chief Fiyanggū presents war captives to the emperor.
 
11th Month:
Galdan Boshugtu Kahn sends Ge-lei-gu-ying as an envoy to plead for surrender but is in fact surreptitiously seeking to ascertain the Kangxi Emperor’s motives. The emperor tells him, “We will wait for you for seventy days. After that, We will send troops.”
 
Dingchou Year (approx. 1697)
Kangxi Reign, 36th Year
 
1st Month:
The emperor states, “We have examined the compilation of the History of the Ming (Ming shi). At no time did an empress or imperial mother participate in governmental affairs; neither did subject-officials insult their rulers. Our reign has followed the system of the Ming in many respects… We will not make a mockery of fallen empires as was the practice of previous dynasties. In the compilation of the History of the Ming (Ming shi), include Our injunction in an imperial admonition for compilation.
 
2nd Month:
For a second time, the Kangxi Emperor personally leads an attack on Galdan Boshugtu Kahn; this assault is made at Ningxia. The heir apparent remains behind to administer government affairs in the capital.
Officials are sent to sacrifice to the god of the Yellow River.
 
3rd Month:
The Kangxi Emperor temporarily stays in Ningxia. He inspects Zuunmod (southeast of present-day Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia) and provides relief and condolences for soldiers killed in the battle. Sacrifices are made in the Helan Mountains. The emperor inspects the troops. The imperial guardsmen are ordered to equally divide the emperor’s victuals among the soldiers.
 
4th Month:
The Kangxi Emperor returns to the capital. Fiyanggū reports that on the thirteenth day of the intercalary third lunar month Galdan Boshugtu Kahn died from taking poison. The emperor leads a host of officials in the worship of Heaven. Victory is announced throughout the empire.
 
7th Month:
Upon the pacification of the Gobi Desert, officials are sent to sacrifice at temples and ancestral shrines, mausoleums, and at the Confucian Temple.
The reconstruction of the Hall of Supreme Harmony (Taihe dian) is completed.
 
10th Month:
Initial orders are made for sons of the imperial clan and other Manchu students to take provincial examinations (xiangshi) and metropolitan examinations (huishi).
 
11th Month:
Imperial Princess Kejing (lit. "Respectful and Tranquil", also known as Amarlingui in Mongolian) is married to Khalka Commandery Prince Dun-duo-bu-duo-er-qi (Mongolian Dondovdorj).
 
Wuyin Year (approx. 1698)
Kangxi Reign, 37th Year
 
1st Month:
The Kangxi Emperor visits Mount Wutai.
The emperor’s eldest son Yunzhi and Grand Secretary Isangga are ordered to sacrifice at the mausoleums of the Jin emperors Taizu and Shizong.
 
3rd Month:
The eldest imperial sun, Yunzhi, is given the feudal title of the Commandery Prince of Zhi (lit. "Upright"). The emperor’s third son, Yunzhi (with the same pronunciation of zhi but a different Chinese character than in the name of his older brother Yunzhi), is named the Commandery Prince of Cheng (lit. "Honest "). The emperor’s fourth son, Yunzhen; fifth son, Yunqi; seventh son, Yunyou; and eighth son, Yunsi, are all named as princes (beile, prince of the blood of the third degree).
 
5th Month:
The official status of the Imperial Forest Park is rescinded.
 
7th Month:
The Ministry of Personnel is requested to submit candidates every month for the subprefectural magistrate, department magistrate, and county officials.
The constructions on the river embankments at Bazhou are completed. The river is named the Yongding River. A temple to the god of the river is built.
Accompanying the empress dowager for an eastern tour, the Kangxi Emperor follows a route beyond the established border fortresses.
 
8th Month:
The emperor tours the borderlands. Accompanying the empress dowager, the Kangxi Emperor visits his daughter the Harqin Princess Duanjing at her residence. He gives gold coins to her and her consort Ga-er-zang. The empress dowager makes sacrifices for her parents at Mount Faku. Princess Duanmin and her consort Bandi, the Prince of Da-er-han, are presented with gold coins.
 
9th Month:
The Kangxi Emperor is quartered temporarily at Ke-er-su. Upon visiting the mausoleum of the Prince of Khorchin—Empress Xiaozhuangwen’s father—Man-zhu-xi-li (Mongolian Manjusri), wine is presented as a libation.
 
10th Month:
The Kangxi Emperor hunts at Hoifa. Stopping over in Xingjing, the emperor visits the Yong Tomb. He sends officials to make offerings at the mausoleum of the Commandery Prince of Martial Merit, Lidun Baturu. The emperor visits the Fu and Zhao Tombs and personally makes sacrifices at the mausoleums of Yangguri, the Prince of Martial Merit; Fiongdon, the Duke of Justice; and Eidu, the Duke of Steadfastness.
 
12th Month:
The emperor instructs the Court of the Imperial Clan, saying, “Regarding leisurely members of the imperial clan, they must be efficient and skillful. They must become proficient horseback riders and archers. As to those who are poor with no livelihood, each case must be thoroughly verified.”
 
Jimao Year (approx. 1699)
Kangxi Reign, 38th Year
 
1st Month:
In preparation for a southern tour, the emperor releases the following edict, “All provisions for the imperial caravan will be supplied by the capital. The local people will not be disturbed.”
 
2nd Month:
The emperor sets out on his third southern tour.
 
3rd Month:
The Kangxi Emperor inspects dikes on the Yellow River.
Stopping in Hangzhou, the emperor inspects the troops and holds an archery competition.
 
4th Month:
The imperial procession reaches Jiangning. The emperor conducts a military inspection.
 
5th Month:
The imperial procession next arrives in Zhongjiazha, the hometown of Zhong You (courtesy name Zilu). The emperor personally prepares a calligraphic inscription, reading “Philosopher of the Sacred School” (Shengmen zhi zhe), which is then displayed in the Zhong family’s ancestral shrine.
 
7th Month (Intercalary):
Lady Janggiya, an imperial consort, dies. She is given the posthumous title of Consort-in-ordinary Min (lit. "Perceptive"; an imperial concubine of the third rank, fei). She was the mother of the emperor’s third son, Yunzhi, the Commandery Prince of Cheng (lit. "Honest"). The mourning son does not shave his hair for a hundred days and is demoted to the title of prince (beile, prince of the blood of the third degree).
 
10th Month:
Having examined the Yongding River project, the emperor commands his son Yunzhi, the Commandery Prince of Zhi (lit. "Upright"), to lead Eight Banners troops to assist in constructing the river dike.
 
Yinchen Year (approx. 1700)
Kangxi Reign, 39th Year
 
1st Month:
The emperor inspects the Yongding River project.
 
2nd Month:
The emperor personally instructs the Yongding River project directors in engineering plans. Fiyanggū and Isangga are ordered to examine the horseback riding skills and archery of sons of the imperial clan.
 
6th Month:
The Temple of the Sea God (Haishen miao) is constructed. Recruitment examinations (keju) for the imperial clan are concluded.
 
10th Month:
On the empress dowager’s sixtieth birthday, the Kangxi Emperor composes Ode to Boundless Longevity (Wanshou wujiang) as a work of calligraphy. 
 The piece is included in the design of a folding screen, which is given to his mother as a gift.
The emperor conducts an inspection tour of the Yongding River.
 
11th Month:
Exceptional officials are summoned for audiences with the emperor according to their positions and duties.
 
Xinsi Year (approx. 1701)
Kangxi Reign, 40th Year
 
1st Month:
On the account that the Lord of the River (Hebo, a Chinese deity) was recognized as demonstrating his mighty powers, the Kangxi Emperor gives the diety the title of the Fourth Great Golden Dragon Prince.
 
5th Month:
Censor Zhang Yuan requests that the mausoleum of the Ming eunuch Wei Zhongxian be demolished. The request is approved.
 
Renwu Year (approx. 1702)
Kangxi Reign, 41st Year

1st Month:
By edict, the emperor orders the renovation of the Directorate of Education (Guozi jian).
 
6th Month:
The Kangxi Emperor composes Instructions to Students (Xunchi shizi wen). This text is posted throughout the provinces and engraved for display in Confucian temples throughout the empire.
 
9th Month:
The emperor departs for his fourth southern tour.
 
10th Month:
Reaching Dezhou (in Shandong Province), the imperial procession returns to the capital due to the heir apparent falling ill.
 
11th Month:
The emperor orders the mausoleum of Yu the Great to be reconstructed.
This year, restrictions are established for the number of accompanying family members permitted to outer officials (waiguan).
 
Guiwei Year (approx. 1703)
Kangxi Reign, 42nd Year

1st Month:
The grand secretaries and the host of ministers congratulate the Kangxi Emperor on his fiftieth birthday celebration. The folding screen entitled 
 
Ode to Boundless Longevity (Wanshou wujiang) is presented to the emperor. He sends it back and only accepts the written congratulations.
The emperor conducts a southern tour, during which he inspects the Yellow River.
 
3rd Month:
On the Festival of Ten Thousand Longevities (Wanshou jie, the emperor’s birthday), the emperor pays homage to the empress dowager in her palace. Court ministers are not required to attend a congratulatory audience. A pardon is declared throughout the empire. The people are exempted from paying taxes. Filial piety is praised after proper examination. Aid is given to the poor. Exceptional individuals from the Ming dynasty are honorably recognized. Special gifts based on rank are given to officials holding the rank of prince and commandery prince on down. The provincial graduates Wang Hao, He Chao, and Jiang Tingxi in the inner court's Imperial Printing Office attend the palace examination.
 
5th Month:
Fuciowan, the Prince of Yu, falls ill. The Kangxi Emperor pays him daily visits.
Songgotu, the grand minister assistant commander of the Imperial Guardsmen, is found complicit in the illicit actions of the heir apparent. He is pronounced as the Worst Criminal Under Heaven and imprisoned in the Court of the Imperial Clan.
 
6th Month:
The emperor undertakes an inspection tour north of the Great Wall.
 
10th Month:
The emperor travels to the provinces of Shanxi and Shaanxi and other western regions on an inspection tour. The third imperial son, Yinzhi, is ordered to collect reconnaissance at Mount Dizhu (also called Sanmen Mountain, in present-day Henan Province).
 
11th Month:
In Hongdong County (Shanxi Province), officials are sent to make sacrifices at the tomb of Nüwa—the goddess of creation in Chinese mythology. 
Officials are dispatched to make sacrifices at Mount Hua (also called Xiyue, lit. “West Mountain”).
The emperor stays at Xi'an where he inspects garrison troops and tests their archery abilities.
 
12th Month:
At Cizhou (in present-day Handan, Hebei Province), the emperor personally prepares an inscription, reading “Enduring Benevolence of Sagacity” (Xianzhe weixiu), to be displayed at the mausoleum of the Confucian disciple Zigong.
 
Jiashen Year (approx. 1704)
Kangxi Reign, 43rd Year

2nd Month:
The god of the River Huai is named the Great Source Protector of Flow. The emperor prepares an inscription, reading “Spirit Waterway, Calm and Tranquil” (Lingdu anlan), to be prominently displayed.
 
4th Month:
Imperial Guardsman La-xi is commanded to inspect the source of the Yellow River.
 
6th Month:
The hand of Lady Niohuru, the daughter of the fourth ranked Manager of Ceremonies Ling-zhu, is given in marriage to the fourth imperial son Yinzhen at his feudal estate.
The compilation of the Rhyme Repository of the Studio of Adorned Literature (Peiwen yunfu) begins in the Hall of Martial Valor (Wuying dian).
 
10th Month:
The Ministry of Revenue is ordered to cast bronze dou (approx. 10 liters) and sheng (approx. 1 liter) measurements with iron.
 
11th Month:
The historians compiling the History of the Ming (Ming shi) are warned that they should fairly and clearly present a faithful record all of the Ming's glories and crimes.
 
12th Month:
Court officials are given a collection of the emperor’s poetry.
 
Yiyou Year (approx. 1705)
Kangxi Reign, 44th Year

1st Month:
The imperially commissioned Anthology of Ancient Literature (Guwen yuanjian) is completed and distributed around the court and various schools.
 
2nd Month:
The Kangxi Emperor undertakes his fifth tour of the South and inspects river engineering projects.
Eunuchs and palace women are forbidden to use familial names—such as those for relatives, cousins, or sisters—in their interactions with each other. Perpetrators are to be severely punished.
 
3rd Month:
The imperial retinue reaches Suzhou. University student-initiates (ju jian), tribute students (gong jian), and government students (sheng yuan) proficient in writing and from the Jiangnan area and Zhejiang are selected to edit and compile documents in the capital.
The proofreading and editing of the Complete Tang Poems(Quan tangshi)  is completed by Cao Yin, the Superintendent of the Imperial Silk Manufactory at Jiangning.
Grand Secretary Ma-qi and others are gifted with Imperial Territory (Huangyu biao).
 
10th Month:
The reconstruction of the temple for the worship of Mount Hua in Huayin, Shaanxi Province is completed. An inscription is prepared for a stele to commemorate the project.
 
11th Month:
Construction at the Directorate of Education is completed. The emperor personally prepares an inscription for the name of one of the halls, namely, the Hall of Established Principles (Yilun tang).
This year conflict arises between the Kangxi Emperor and the Catholic Church. The emperor becomes disposed towards the proscription of missionaries.
 
Bingxu Year (approx. 1706)
Kangxi Reign, 45th Year

5th Month:
The emperor travels north of the Great Wall. The imperial summer resort is constructed at Jehol (present-day Chengde, Hebei Province) as a palatial residence for the emperor’s annual fall hunt.
 
6th Month:
By imperial order, the compilation of Biographies of Meritorious Officials (Gongchen zhuan) begins.
 
7th Month:
The emperor stays at Jehol (present-day Chengde, Hebei Province).
 
10th Month:
Military palace-examinations are conducted.
 
11th Month:
The Dalai Lama dies. The sde-pa (Chinese diba, an official who administrates government affairs) goes into hiding. A false Dalai Lama is appointed. Lha-bzang Khan kills the sde-pa and presents the false Dalai Lama to the emperor.
 
Dinghai Year (approx. 1707)
Kangxi Reign, 46th Year

1st Month:
The Kangxi Emperor undertakes his sixth southern inspection tour.
 
6th Month:
The emperor travels north of the Great Wall.
The emperor’s third son, Yinzhi, invites his father to his private residence for a banquet. This becomes an annual tradition.
The Hanlin academician Chen Bangyan of the emperor’s South Study (Nan shufang) completes his compilation of painting inscriptions from the Song, Yuan, and Ming dynasties. The Kangxi Emperor personally reads the compilation, which is called Painting Inscriptions from Successive Dynasties (Lidai tihua shilei).
 
7th Month:
The emperor stays in Jehol (present-day Chengde) and inspects various Mongolian tribes.
 
Wuzi Year (approx. 1708)
Kangxi Reign, 47th Year

1st Month:
The reconstruction of the Grand Temple at Mount Heng (also known as the South Mountain) is completed. The emperor personally prepares an inscription for display.
 
4th Month:
Descendants of the Ming dynasty’s Chongzhen Emperor are farrested. One of the former dynasty’s princes—Zhu Cihuan (colloquially called “Prince Zhusan”), already in his seventies—is publically executed with his sons.
Restorations on Beizhen Temple (in present-day Liaoning Province) are completed. The emperor personally prepares an inscription for display.
 
6th Month:
The emperor stays in Jehol (present-day Chengde).
The emperor writes a preface for the recently completed Mirror of the Manchu Language (Qingwen jian).
 
7th Month:
The emperor writes a preface for the recently completed Strategy of the Pacification of the Northern Desert (Pingding shuomo fanglüe).
 
9th Month:
The emperor summons court officials to one of his palatial residences (called xinggong) outside the Forbidden City where he informs them of the crimes of his son, Heir Apparent Yinreng. He orders his son’s arrest. The prince is arrested and imprisoned in the capital. The heir apparent is stripped of his position as successor to the throne. The news is announced throughout the empire.
 
10th Month:
The emperor meets with his grand ministers to discuss the eighth imperial son Yinsi’s violation of requesting succession to the imperial throne. 
He is stripped of his princely title (beile, Manchu for prince of the blood of the third degree).
 
11th Month:
The third imperial son Yinzhi accuses his eldest brother Yinzhi of cursing the heir apparent. For this infraction, Yinzhi is stripped of his title of commandery prince and imprisoned. Vice-Censor-in-chief Lao Zhibian submits a memorial to the throne calling for the removal of the heir apparent, for his titles to be withdrawn, and for him to be punished by caning. The emperor summons court officials to discuss the appointment of the heir apparent. Alingga, Elundai, Wang Hongxu, and the grand ministers request the appointment of the eighth imperial son Yinsi. The Kangxi Emperor refuses. The deposed heir apparent, Yinreng, is released. The princes and grand ministers request that Yinreng be reinstated as the heir apparent. Yinsi’s title of prince (beile, prince of the blood of the third degree) is restored.
 
12th Month:
An office is established for the publication of the Strategy of the Pacification of the Northern Desert (Pingding shuomo fanglüe). Henceforth, official strategy records are revised after each major battle.
 
Jichou Year (approx. 1709)
Kangxi Reign, 48th Year

1st Month:
The emperor summons court officials to conduct an inquiry to determine who initiated the movement for Yinsi to be appointed as heir apparent. The officials are terrified. The emperor asks Zhang Tingyu, and the official replies, “I heard it was Ma-qi.” The next day the crimes of Ma-qi are listed. He is spared the death penalty but arrested. After conducting investigations, it is found that Ma-qi was falsely accused, and he is released.
 
3rd Month:
Yinreng is reinstated as the heir apparent. Offerings are made in the Ancestral Temple, and the news is announced throughout the empire.
 
4th Month:
The imprisoned Yinzhi is relocated. During his relocation, officials are dispatched with soldiers serving as guards.
 
10th Month:
Feudal titles are given to the imperial sons. Yinzhi, the third son, is named as the Prince of Cheng. Yinzhen, the fourth son, is named as the Prince of Yong. Yinqi, the fifth son, is named as the Prince of Heng. Yinyou, the seventh son, is named as the Commandery Prince of Chun. Yin’e, the tenth son, is named as the Commandery Prince of Dun. Yintang, the ninth son; Yintao, the twelfth son; and Yinti, the fourteenth son, are named as princes (beile, prince of the blood of the third degree).
The Garden of Perfect Brightness (Yuanming yuan) is built to the north of the Garden of Joyful Spring (Changchun yuan) and gifted to the fourth imperial son, Yinzhen, as a private residence.
 
Gengyin Year (approx. 1710)
Kangxi Reign, 49th Year

1st Month:
On the seventieth birthday celebration of the empress dowager, the emperor informs the Ministry of Rites, “Include traditional Manchu style dances (called make in Chinese) and a Manchu feast for festive celebration. This year on the empress dowager’s seventieth birthday celebrations, We are fifty and seven years old. We will personally dance and give a toast.”
The emperor orders the compilation of the forty-four volume Classified Repository of Profound Appraisals (Yuanjian leihan).
Orders are made for the compilation of the Mirror of the Manchu Language: Manchu-Chinese Parallel Edition (Manhan hebi qingwen jian).
 
2nd Month:
The emperor visits Mount Wutai (Shanxi, Province).
 
3rd Month:
The emperor orders the compilation of a dictionary. (This will later be commonly known as the Kangxi Dictionary, Kangxi zidian.)
 
10th Month:
By imperial edict, beginning from the fiftieth year of the Kangxi reign, taxes will not be collected throughout the empire. The policy is finally enacted throughout the empire after three years. The nine provinces of Zhili, Fengtian, Zhejiang, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, and Guizhou are exempted from taxes.
 
Xinmao Year (approx. 1711)
Kangxi Reign, 50th Year

1st Month:
The emperor inspects the river levee in Tongzhou.
 
2nd Month:
The emperor inspects the Kuang’ergang Port (near present-day Tianjin). He orders the construction of an embankment for separating the flow of the water. The Kangxi Emperor walks along the water's edge for approximately two li (about 1,300 meters). He personally uses equipment to establish the precise direction and marks the place of his measurement.
 
3rd Month:
Minister Geng-e and other grand ministers are punished for the crime of conspiring for the heir apparent at drinking gatherings.
 
7th Month:
The emperor conducts his autumn hunt at the Mulan hunting grounds.
 
8th Month:
A fourth son, Hongli (later to become the Qianlong Emperor), is born to the fourth imperial son, Yinzhen, and Lady Niohuru, the daughter of Ling-zhu of the Niohuru clan—a fourth-ranked manager of ceremonies. Yinzhen’s fifth son, Hongjeo, is born to imperial clanswoman Lady Geng, the daughter of Chief Clerk Geng De.
 
10th Month:
The emperor orders that Zhang Penghe be imprisoned in Yangzhou in response to fraudulent activities involving the civil service recruitment examinations held in the Jiangnan area.
 
Renchen Year (approx. 1712)
Kangxi Reign, 51st Year

1st Month:
Grand ministers inside and outside the palace are commanded to prepare memorials to the throne detailing various happenings. The palace memorial system is thus established.

2nd Month:
The emperor orders outstanding martial officials to be brought to audience as civil officials. By imperial edict, the emperor declares, “Peace has been maintained in the empire as the years have passed. The population grows larger each day. Further births increase the population. There is no need to raise population taxes. This year’s population tax will be set as normative. This edict shall be added to the law.” (This statement is the basis for what becomes the policy of “never increasing population taxes after population increases”, zisheng rending yong bu jiafu.)
 
4th Month:
By imperial edict, the Kangxi Emperor’s sixtieth birthday will be celebrated in the coming year with special provincial examinations in the second month and metropolitan examinations in the eighth month.
 
9th Month:
Punishments for Yinreng’s (the heir apparent) crimes are reinstituted. He is stripped of his title and placed under arrest in the Palace of Universal Peace (Xian’an gong, formerly located where the Hall of Embodied Treasures, Baoyun lou, currently stands).

11th Month:
Upon the rejection of Yinreng as the heir apparent, sacrifices are offered to the imperial ancestors. The news is reported throughout the empire.
 
Guisi Year (approx. 1713)
Kangxi Reign, 52nd Year

2nd Month:
Grand Minister Zhao Shenqiao writes to the throne discussing imperial succession and stressing that an heir apparent should be appointed. The emperor responds saying that the appointment of the heir apparent cannot be taken lightly and informs court officials. He returns the original memorial and rejects the grand minster’s suggestion.
 
3rd Month:
During celebrations for the emperor’s sixtieth birthday, a grand banquet is held for a thousand elderly gentlemen. This begins the tradition of the imperial banquet for a thousand elderly gentlemen.
The twenty-second imperial son, Yinhu, is born to a lower ranking concubine (shu fei) named Lady Hetu.
 
7th Month:
By imperial edict, the assistant director of the Court of the Imperial Clan reduces listings in the imperial genealogy. Imperial sons and grandsons are marked with red and purple ribbons, respectively, and included in The Jade Genealogy (Yu die, the official record of the imperial genealogy).
 
This year, by imperial edict, compilation work begins for various works concerning musical theory and pitch systems (known as Lülü). For this purpose, the Mathematics School is established in the Studio of Honest Cultivation (Mengyang zhai) in the Garden of Joyful Spring (Changchun yuan), and music scholars from across the empire are convened to serve.
 
Jiawu Year (approx. 1714)
Kangxi Reign, 53rd Year

1st Month:
The emperor orders that the musical instruments at altars, temples, halls, and palace courts be repaired.
 
2nd Month:
Former Minister Wang Hongxu presents his two hundred and eighty chapters of the History of the Ming: Collected Biographies to the emperor. The collection is to be housed among the historical archives.
 
10th Month:
The grand secretaries and Hanlin scholars in the Southern Study are ordered to examine and revise musical documents.
 
11th Month:
The Prince of Cheng, Yinzhi, and others submit the book Basic Principles of Pitch Systems (Lülü zhengyi), which was compiled according to imperial regulation. The emperor orders that the “three works on pitch systems (i.e., Basic Principles of Pitch Systems), the calendar, and mathematics shall be compiled into one title, namely, Sources of Musical Harmonics and Mathematical Astronomy (Lüli yuanyuan)”. On the winter solstice, new music accompanies the emperor’s sacrifices at the Circular Mound Altar at the Temple of Heaven.
 
Yiwei Year (approx. 1715)
Kangxi Reign, 54th Year
 
1st Month:
By imperial edict, Yinsi, an imperial prince (beile, prince of the blood of the third degree) is charged with neglecting duties and punished by withholding his income allotment.
 
10th Month:
The emperor informs the grand secretaries, “Our right hand is incapacitated and unable to write. So, We are using Our left hand to respond to memorials. For the time being, do not disclose this information.”

11th Month:
The deposed Heir Apparent Yinreng inscribes a letter in alum ink.
Grand Minister Pu-qi declares himself as a general-in-chief and is then charged for this offense.
This year the eighth imperial son, Yinsi, is to no longer receive his financial allocation.
The Spring-Mountain Palace (Tangshan xinggong) is constructed at Mount Xiaotang (Xiaotang shan) in the outskirts of the capital.
 
Bingshen Year (approx. 1716)
Kangxi Reign, 55th Year

11th Month:
Tsewang Rabtan of the Dzungar Mongols stirs up trouble in Tibet.
This year the Kangxi Emperor’s dictionary is printed with the emperor’s personally composed foreword.
 
Dingyou Year (approx. 1717)
Kangxi Reign, 56th Year

1st Month:
The compilation of A Balanced Edition of the Book of Changes (Zhouyi zhezhong) is completed. The book is distributed to schools.
 
5th Month:
The nine chief ministers present their opinions that if errand runners for various princes fail to show local officials the officially issued tallies their masters should be subject to investigation and held liable.
 
7th Month:
Tsewang Rabtan sends soldiers on an invasion of Tibet. They kill Lha-bzang Khan and seek to capture his appointed Dalai Lama.
 
11th Month:
The empress dowager is ill, and the emperor visits her in the Palace of Compassion and Tranquility (Cining gong).
The emperor issues an order that includes a retrospective look at his life and a description of the difficulties of imperial rule. Additionally, he notes that from the spring of this year he has suffered from dizziness and is growing weaker and thinner. He expressly summons his sons and the chief ministers to finalize the matter of succession.

12th Month:
The empress dowager dies. The Kangxi Emperor has been ill for over seventy days with swelling in the instep of his foot.
This year merchants are forbidden to trade in Southeast Asia. Merchants engaged in trade with Japan are permitted to continue as usual.
 
Wuxu Year (approx. 1718)
Kangxi Reign, 57th Year

2nd Month:
Examining Editor Zhu Tianbao of the Hanlin Academy submits a memorial to the emperor requesting Yinreng to be reinstated as the heir apparent. 
Indicting the official of disregarding the imperial will, the Kangxi Emperor—then at one of his countryside palaces—severely reprimands him as disloyal and disobedient and orders his execution.
 
3rd Month:
The empress dowager is given her posthumous title Empress Xiaohuizhang.
The position known as the imperial diary officer is terminated.
 
4th Month:
Empress Xiaohuizhang is interred at the Xiao Tomb among the Eastern Qing Tombs.
 
7th Month:
The compilation of Ceremonies of Imperial Inspection Tours (Xingfang shengdian) is commenced.
 
10th Month:
Yinti, the fourteenth imperial son, is ordered to serve as Pacifier of the Frontier General-in-chief and leads troops to Qinghai.
Hanlin academicians, supervising secretaries, and investigating censors are ordered to serve on duty.
The seventh imperial son, Yinyou; the tenth son, Yin’e; and the twelfth son, Yintao are ordered to administrate the Manchu, Mongol, and Han Banners of the Yellow Banner, White Banner, Blue Banner, respectively.
 
12th Month:
The name tablet of the late Empress Xiaohuizhang is officially placed in the Imperial Ancestral Temple (Tai miao). Her ancestral tablet is placed to the left of that of the late Empress Xiaokangzhang (the Kangxi Emperor’s biological mother). This event is announced throughout the empire.
Concubine He (lit. "Peaceful"; an imperial concubine of the fourth rank, pin), is promoted as Consort-in-ordinary He (an imperial concubine of the third rank, fei). The lower-ranking Lady Wang is renamed Concubine Mi (lit. "Intimate"; an imperial concubine of the fourth rank). Lady Chen is named Concubine Qin (lit. "Diligent"; an imperial concubine of the fourth rank, pin). Lady Borjigit, the niece of the Shunzhi Emperor’s Consort-in-ordinary Dao (an imperial concubine of the third rank, fei), is named Consort-in-ordinary Yi (lit. "Suitable"; an imperial concubine of the third rank, fei). Lady Daigiya is named as Consort-in-ordinary Cheng (lit. "Complete"; an imperial concubine of the third rank, fei). Lady Wanlioha is named Concubine Ding (lit. "Stable"; an imperial concubine of the fourth rank, pin).
 
Jihai Year (approx. 1719)
Kangxi Reign, 58th Year

1st Month:
By imperial edict, meritorious ministers are called to retire. Their sons are permitted to inherit their posts. If he has no heir, a retired minister is to receive his salary until death.
 
2nd Month:
Academician Jiang Tingxi presents the map Comprehensive View of the Imperial Territory (Huangyu quanlan tu) to the emperor. Copies of the map are given to court officials.
 
4th Month:
Pacifier of the Frontier General-in-chief Yinti leads a garrison force in Xining (in present-day Qinghai Province).
 
10th Month:
Provincial Graduate Wang Lansheng at the Studio of Honest Cultivation (Mengyang zhai) is ordered to compile the Rhyme Chart of Correct Sounds (Zhengyin yuntu).
 
Gengzi Year (approx. 1720)
Kangxi Reign, 59th Year

2nd Month:
Pekar Dzinpa (also known as Yeshe Gyatso) is appointed as the sixth Dalai Lama. (Some scholars believe this appointment ended the instability among Tibetan religious leaders that followed the time of the fifth Dalai Lama.)
 
10th Month:
By imperial edict, Pacifier of the Frontier General-in-chief Yinti is commanded to report the date for dispatching troops in the coming year.
Hongsheng—the son of Yinzhi, the third imperial son—and Hongsheng—the son of Yinqi, the fifth imperial son—are appointed as heirs (the typical status of eldest sons among the nobility). They are both given the salary allotted for princes (beile, prince of the blood of the third degree).
Guidelines for annual imperial audiences for envoys of vassal states are established.
 
Xinchou Year (approx. 1721)
Kangxi Reign, 60th Year

1st Month:
The Kangxi Emperor begins his sixtieth year as emperor. He sends his fourth son, Yinzhen; twelfth son, Yintao; and Hongsheng, an heir, to offer sacrifices at the Yong, Fu, and Zhao Tombs.
 
3rd Month:
Grand Secretary Wang Shan writes a secret memorial to throne requesting the reappointment of the heir apparent. Later, Censor Tao Yi and a dozen others write a memorial requesting the appointment of an heir apparent. The Kangxi Emperor refuses. Wang Shan, Tao Yi, and others are charged with crimes and punished by being sent to the front lines for military service.
 
4th Month:
By imperial edict, the regulations for sacrifices and worship in the Temple of Emperors of Successive Dynasties are stipulated and collated.
 
9th Month:
The emperor writes the inscription for the Pacification of Tibet Stele (Pingding Xizang bei).
 
10th Month:
Pacifier of the Frontier General-in-chief Yinti is summoned back to the capital.
 
Renyin Year (approx. 1722)
Kangxi Reign, 61st Year 

1st Month:
Upon the occasion of holding a grand banquet for a thousand elderly gentlemen, the Kangxi Emperor prepares and presents a poem. The host of ministers and officials compose poetry in response to the emperor’s poem. This collection of poetry is compiled as Banquet for a Thousand Elderly Gentlemen (Qiansou yan shi).

3rd Month:
The emperor visits the residence of Yinzhen, the fourth imperial son, where he enjoys wine and views blossoms. He instructs that Yinzhen’s son, Hongli, be raised in the imperial palace.
 
10th Month:
The Prince of Yong, Yinzhen, and others are ordered to inspect the imperial storehouses.
 
11th Month:
The Kangxi Emperor is in poor health. He stays in the Garden of Joyful Spring (Changchun yuan). The fourth imperial son, Yinzhen, is dispatched to offer sacrifices to Heaven in place of his father.
The Kangxi Emperor dies. On the evening of the day of his death, his body is moved to the Forbidden City for mourning rites.
By posthumous edict, the emperor’s fourth son, Yinzhen, is declared as his successor with the reign name Yongzheng. The authenticity of the posthumous edict is brought into question and causes turmoil in the court. 
Yinsi, a prince (beile, prince of the blood of the third degree) and the eighth son of the Kangxi Emperor; Yinxiang, the thirteenth imperial son; 
Grand Secretary Ma-qi; and Minister Longkodo are designated as grand minister superintendents (zongli shiwu wang dachen). Yinti, the fourteenth imperial son and Pacifier of the Frontier General-in-chief  (fuyuan dajiangjun), is recalled to the capital for mourning and funerarary rites. 
The third imperial son, Yinzhi (later known as Yunzhi), the Prince of Cheng, submits a memorial to the court requesting that the character yin at the beginning of the names of the imperial sons be changed to yun in order to avoid the taboo of using a character in the emperor's personal name.
 
12th Month: 
Yunsi (formerly Yinsi) is named as the Prince of Lian and minister of the Court of Colonial Affairs (Lifan yuan). Yunxiang (formerly, Yinxiang) is named as the Prince of Yi. Yuntao (Yintao), the twelfth son, is named as the Commandery Prince of Lü. Hongxi, the son of the deposed heir apparent Yunreng (Yinreng), the second son, is named as the Commandery Prince of Li. Longkodo is named as the minister of the Ministry of Personnel.
Grand Consort Yi (lit. "Proper") claims to be sick and greets the Yongzheng Emperor while seated on a litter carried by four servants. She is reprimanded for this violation of etiquette.
From this month on, official ranks are granted to eunuchs. One fifth-ranked eunuch is to serve as the commissioner of the Directorate of the Palace Domestic Service. Three eunuchs receive the fifth rank. The sixth rank is bestowed upon two eunuchs. 
Regulations are revised for sacrifices at the Temple of Emperors of Successive Dynasties. By imperial edict, the unfinished Collection of Texts and Illustrations, Old and New (Gujin tushu jicheng) is to be completed. Exceptional scholars are commissioned to finish the compilation.

-------------------------------------------------------

Translator: Adam J. Ensign

Editor: Li Yang

The Kangxi Emperor (r. 1662-1722)

 
The Kangxi Emperor (r. 1662-1722), Aisin Gioro Xuanye, was born on the eighteenth day of the third lunar month, 1654, in the Palace of Great Benevolence (Jingren gong), in the Forbidden City, Beijing. He was the third son of the late Shunzhi Emperor. His biological mother was Lady Tunggiya, the Xiaokang Empress. Lady Tunggiya was brought up in the Forbidden City. Her grand-father Tong Yangxing was a Han Chinese official who yielded to the Qing in the early days and served the Manchu court as a high-ranking official thereafter. Therefore, Lady Tunggiya entered the Qing imperial Palace with a Han Chinese cultural background. 
 
  In 1661, the eighteenth year of the Shunzhi reign (1644-1661), the Emperor died from smallpox. At that time, the succession system was not yet developed. Furthermore, the Shunzhi Emperor died still a young man who had never thought about choosing a successor. Under such circumstances, with the support of the then Empress Dowager Xiaozhuang (mother of the Shunzhi Emperor) and the advice of the trusted German Jesuit missionary, Johann Adam Schall von Bell (Chinese name Tang Ruowang, 1591-1666), the eight-year-old (by traditional account) Xuanye was named as the heir. He was chosen solely because he had survived the smallpox and would thereby remain immune to any recurrence of it. As the Shunzhi Emperor lay dying, he appointed four Manchu officials - Soni, Oboi, Ebilun, and Suksaha - who had aided him in his assumption of direct rule after the death of Prince Regent Dorgon in 1652 as a council of four regents until Xuanye should achieve his majority. The reign period of the new successor was named Kangxi. Tunggiya entered the Qing imperial Palace with a Han Chinese cultural background. 
 
The Kangxi Emperor was a great ruler of China in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. During his sixty-one-year reign, a multi-national country took form and achieved prosperity. The Kangxi Emperor himself was descended from Manchu, Mongolian, and Han Chinese. He was thus brought up in a multi-cultural environment. 
 
Xuanye was an extremely talented and indomitable youth. After he succeeded to the throne, he read for several hours every day. He worked so hard that sometimes he vomited blood. When he was sixteen, he got rid of the oppressive regency of Oboi with wisdom and courage, securing imperial power in his own hands. From then on, with insight and vigor, he began to cure the illnesses that had been caused by wars and Oboi’s re-allocation of the inequitable allocation of land to Manchus. “inequitable allocation of land to Manchus.” 
 
The Kangxi Emperor resolved the eight-year-long revolt of the Three Feudatories (san fan) by Wu Sangui and others. His reign saw the annexation of Taiwan, which had been separated from China by Zheng Jing, son of Zheng Chenggong, a general who wrestled the island from Dutch colonists. With the signing of the Treaty of Nerchinsk with Russia, the eastern frontier between China and Russia was delineated, eliminating the threat of a Russian alliance with potential enemies of the Qing in the northwest . The Emperor commissioned campaigns against Galdan, a Mongolian leader who had been trained under the fifth Dalai Lama and was expanding his power in the Northwest, posing an increasing threat to authority in Beijing. In an effort to stabilize the multi-ethnic state, the Emperor established a mechanism for meeting with foreign leaders, and regulated the manner of receiving foreign ambassadors and vassal envoys at the Mountain Villa to Escape the Heat (Bishu shanzhuang, the Qing imperial resort in today’s Chengde, Hebei province).. 
 
The Kangxi Emperor also made remarkable achievements in stimulating the economy and developing culture, exerting affirmative influence for generations to come.  He commissioned campaigns to harness the Yellow River and the Huai River. Among his many economic initiatives were the policy of awarding frontier development, the exemption from land taxes, and the freeze of the ding (unit of a taxable adult male) tax quota. The Kangxi Emperor sponsored the compilation of the Ming History (Ming shi) and The Complete Tang Poems (Quantang shi). He himself was a huge admirer of the Western science and mathematics that were introduced by Christian Jesuits, who endeavored to convert the emperor to Christianity. The Kangxi Emperor was the only ruler in dynastic China to master astronomy, mathematics, and geography. In the late years of his reign, he twice dismissed his second son as the heir apparent. Thereafter, factions continued to form around the Emperor’s eighth son and other brothers, the bureaucracy was fragmented, and bureaucratic corruption flourished. No clear decision on the heir apparent had been taken when the Kangxi Emperor died in 1722. Social stability was seriously damaged. 
 
The Kangxi Emperor died at sixty-nine sui in the Hall for Abstinence in Garden of Pleasant Spring, on the thirteenth day of the eleventh lunar month of the sixty-first year of his reign. His long and glorious posthumous name can be translated as “Emperor Complying with the Heaven, Magnificently Fortunate, Civilized and Martial, Farsightedly Perceptive, Modest and Frugal, Generous and Benevolent, Sincere and Honest, Impartial and Conciliating, Industrious and Virtuous, Marvelously Accomplished, and Benevolent” (Hetian hongyun wenwu ruizhe gongjian kuanyu xiaojing chengxin zhonghe gongde dacheng ren). His temple name is “Shengzu” (Sagacious Progenitor). He is buried in the Prosperity (Jing) Tomb, Eastern Qing Tombs, Zunhua county, Hebei province. 
 

Three Empresses of the Kangxi Emperor (r. 1662-1722)

Introduction: During his lifetime, the Kangxi Emperor (r. 1662-1722) designated three palace ladies as primary consorts. Unfortunately all of them died early, which is one factor in the misfortune of the Kangxi Emperor’s family. 

The Kangxi Emperor (r. 1662-1722) bestowed the title of Chief Consort, or Empress, on three consorts during his lifetime. Unfortunately, all of them died early.

  The first empress, lady Heseri (1653-1674), was the granddaughter of Sonin, one of the four assisting ministers. One year older than the emperor, she was given the title of Empress in 1665 at the age of twelve. In 1674, lady Heseri died in the Palace of Earthly Tranquility (Kongning gong) while giving birth to the prince Yinreng, who became crown prince at the age of two. She was given the posthumous title Empress Xiaocheng.

  The second Empress was Lady Niuhuru (?-1678), daughter of Ebilun, the assisting minister. She first received the title of consort and later in 1677 was elevated to Empress. Unfortunately, Niuhuru died six months later, and was given the posthumous title Xiaozhao.

  Lady Tunggiya (? -1689) was the third Empress of the Kangxi Emperor. She was the daughter of the minister of Internal Defence, Tong Guowei. In 1677, the sixteenth year of the Kangxi reign, Tonggiya was given the title of Honored Consort. Four years later, she was elevated to Imperial Honored Consort. In 1689 the Kangxi Emperor promoted her to Empress, when she was seriously ill. She died one day later, and was given the posthumous title Xiaoyi.

  The early death of these three empresses depressed the Kangxi Emperor, who did not bestow the title of chief consort on any other palace ladies for the rest of his life. The position of chief consort was vacant for thirty-three years. 

  After the death of the Kangxi Emperor in 1722, his fourth son Yinzhen ascended the throne as the Yongzheng Emperor (r. 1723-1735). He granted his biological mother Lady Uya (1660-1723) the title of Empress Dowager. She died shortly after the conferment and received the posthumous title Xiaogong.

  Empress Xiaocheng, Xiaozhao, Xiaoyi, and Xiaogong were all interred in Jingling with the Kangxi Emperor at the Eastern Qing Tombs. 

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